The purpose of this project was to inform debate about teacher pay by examining alternative pay structures emerging in response to new needs in the education system. In Canada, teachers are typically paid on a single-salary basis. Pay structures have been shown to significantly impact the ways that teachers direct their energies, inside and outside of the classroom. Several American school districts have started to explore differential pay structures, such as merit pay, pay-for-performance, or demand related pay. This project examined several options for pay reforms in the Canadian context, drawing some general policy recommendations based on the outcomes of projects implemented in the United States.